In the past, bronchial endoscopy called for the use of the rigid bronchoscope and was consequently used very infrequently in children. The advent of thin and ultrathin fiberoptic bronchoscopes has considerably extended the use of this procedure, even in the neonatal field.
Plastic bronchitis (PB) is an extremely rare clinical entity where inspissated cast is found in endobronchial airway leading to respiratory distress. It is a large gelatinous or rigid branching airway cast.
Artificial intelligence and machine learning are rapidly expanding fields with increasing relevance in anesthesia and, in particular, airway management.